Health Screenings: What to Expect at Different Ages


Health screenings play a vital role in preventative healthcare, facilitating early detection of diseases and conditions before the appearance of symptoms. By spotting potential problems in their initial stages, health screenings contribute to improved outcomes, as many conditions are easier to manage or treat when identified early. In the journey of lifelong health, screenings are an essential pit stop. This article explores the health screenings you can expect at different life stages, and why they’re important.

Introduction to Health Screenings

Health screenings encompass a variety of tests and examinations conducted to identify diseases and health conditions before the manifestation of any symptoms. Early detection via screenings significantly enhances the likelihood of successful treatment and the prevention of severe complications. These screenings may involve simple physical examinations, laboratory tests, imaging tests, or genetic tests. It’s important to note that the necessity and frequency of screenings can vary widely based on your age, sex, personal health history, and family health history.

Screenings in Infancy (0-2 years)

During the first two years of life, screenings are focused on checking the development and health of the infant. Right after birth, babies are tested for hearing loss – a common congenital condition. Additionally, newborns are screened for metabolic disorders like phenylketonuria (PKU), congenital hypothyroidism, and sickle cell disease, among others. Early detection of these conditions can help prevent intellectual disability and life-threatening illnesses. Routine developmental screenings during well-baby visits ensure the baby is growing and developing normally. Immunization, another form of preventive healthcare, also starts in infancy.

Screenings in Early Childhood (2-5 years)

The emphasis during early childhood continues to be on development and growth. Developmental screenings check whether children are meeting their milestones in terms of motor skills, social skills, language, and cognitive abilities. Vision and hearing tests are done to detect any abnormalities early, as they can affect the child’s learning and development. Furthermore, children in high-risk areas or homes built before 1978 should be tested for lead poisoning, as lead exposure can severely affect a child’s physical and mental development.

Screenings in Later Childhood (5-10 years)

As children start school, maintaining regular check-ups is important. Vision and hearing tests remain important, as any untreated issues can affect academic performance and social interactions. Regular dental check-ups should be established to maintain oral health and teach the importance of dental hygiene. Additionally, screening for obesity starts at about age 6, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Regular assessments of overall development and growth ensure the child is on track and help identify any potential health concerns that may need to be addressed.

Screenings in Adolescence (10-19 years)

Health screenings during adolescence start to shift towards adult screenings. Regular check-ups would include assessments for scoliosis, a condition that often develops during adolescence. For sexually active teens, tests for sexually transmitted infections become relevant. The HPV vaccination is also recommended for both girls and boys starting at age 11 to protect against types of HPV that can cause cancer later in life. Regular vision and dental checks continue. Mental health screenings, such as those for depression, also become pertinent due to the increased incidence of mental health issues during adolescence.

Screenings in Young Adulthood (20-29 years)

In young adulthood, maintaining regular health check-ups and starting routine screenings is essential. It’s recommended to start getting cholesterol tests every five years. Blood pressure checks should be done at each regular healthcare visit, or at least once every two years if it’s normal. If overweight or have high blood pressure, screenings for type 2 diabetes also become relevant. For women, it’s recommended to start cervical cancer screenings, either via a Pap smear or an HPV test. Testicular cancer self-examinations are recommended for men, although the frequency is debated.

Screenings in Adulthood (30-39 years)

As we age, the risk for certain diseases increases. In addition to the screenings in young adulthood, adults aged 30-39 should consider regular skin cancer checks, particularly if they have a fair complexion or a significant history of sun exposure. Eye exams for glaucoma, particularly for those at risk, should commence. Women should begin regular breast cancer screenings as per their healthcare provider’s recommendation. Prostate cancer screenings for men should be discussed with healthcare providers, particularly for those with a family history of prostate cancer.

Screenings in Middle Age (40-49 years)

The importance of screenings escalates as we step into middle age. Regular mammograms to screen for breast cancer should commence. Screening for colon cancer should start at age 45, according to the American Cancer Society, and can be done through several tests, including colonoscopy and stool-based tests. Bone density scans should be considered for women post-menopause or those with certain risk factors to screen for osteoporosis. Lipid disorders become a concern, and regular screenings should be conducted to keep a check on the levels of cholesterol and other fats in the blood.

Screenings in Later Middle Age (50-59 years)

This period reinforces the importance of regular screenings. Colorectal cancer screenings should be regularly scheduled, as the risk increases with age. Lung cancer screening is recommended for those at high risk, especially long-term smokers. Regular mammograms for women and prostate screenings for men should continue as per the recommended guidelines.

Screenings in Early Old Age (60-69 years)

As individuals step into the 60s, screenings for osteoporosis become more relevant, particularly for women. Men who have ever smoked and are aged between 65-75 should consider a one-time screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm, a condition where the aorta is abnormally large or bulges outward. Screenings for colorectal cancer and lung cancer for high-risk individuals should continue. Regular vision and hearing tests become more critical, as age-related issues like macular degeneration, glaucoma, and hearing loss are more common in this age group.

Screenings in Later Old Age (70+ years)

In addition to the screenings done in early old age, individuals aged 70 or more should start considering screenings for cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer’s disease. This is particularly relevant for those with a family history of dementia or those experiencing issues with memory or thinking skills. Regular vision and hearing checks are vital as issues such as cataracts, macular degeneration, glaucoma, and age-related hearing loss become more common.

Importance of Individual Health Factors

The relevance and timing of screenings can be greatly influenced by individual health factors. Family health history, personal medical history, lifestyle, and environmental factors can dictate the necessity for earlier or more frequent screenings for certain conditions. For example, someone with a strong family history of colorectal cancer might start screenings earlier than the recommended age. Regular discussions and consultations with your healthcare provider can help develop a personalized screening schedule best suited to your specific needs.

Shared Decision-Making in Health Screenings

Shared decision-making is a collaborative approach where healthcare providers and patients work together to decide on health screenings. This is particularly relevant for screenings where there is a balance between benefits and potential harm or where scientific consensus might be lacking. It’s important for patients to understand the potential risks and benefits of a screening test, consider their personal values and preferences, and participate actively in making informed.

To understand more about the role of healthcare professionals in managing diseases detected through health screenings, refer to our article on The Role of Family Doctors in Managing Chronic Disease.